Saturday, May 18, 2013

MESSIANIC PROPHECY: Resources for study

"The prophecies are the strongest proof of Jesus Christ. 

It is for them also that God has made most provision...." 
~ Blaise Pascal (1660) in Pensees, XI: 706



"Apollos....vigorously refuted his Jewish opponents in public debate, 
proving from the Scriptures that Jesus was the Messiah."

(Acts 18:28, NIV)
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*Acknowledgements: A huge thanks to Eric Chabot, who contributed most of the recommendations and helped me organize it. Also, thanks to Dr. Tim McGrew for recommending the works by Stanley Leathes.


INTRODUCTORY
Videos

  1. "16 Prophecies That Prove Jesus Is The Messiah" (8-Part series on the John Ankerberg Show featuring Dr. Walter Kaiser and Dr. Darrel Bock): "Is Jesus the Messiah?" *Part 1 *Part 2 *Part 3 *Part 4 *Part 5 *Part 6 *Part 7 *Part 8 This is a great series for someone who really wants to get an in-depth understanding of the most important prophecies. I highly recommend it. It is hard to imagine a better team of scholars for this subject. FREE!
  2. "My Search For Messiah" (2-Part Series produced by Day of Discovery). Dr. Michael Rydelnik shares his story of how he grew up as a Jew and came to know that Jesus is the Messiah prophesied in the Torah, by looking closely at several key messianic prophecies. *Part I (26 min);  *Part II (26 min) FREE!
  3. "In Search of Messiah" (22 min). Dr. Michael Brown discusses individuals whom the Jews have claimed to be the Messiah and compare them with Jesus. FREE!
  4. "Isaiah 53: Who Is the Servant?" (5 min). A roundtable discussoin with Dr. Michael Rydelnik, Dr. Michael Brown, Dr. Walter Kaiser, and Dr. Darrell Bock. FREE!
  5. "Jesus: Messiah or Not?" A debate between Dr. Michael Brown and Rabbi Gold. Also available with resources for using with a group.

Audio
  1. Brown, Michael. Messiah in Jewish Tradition. An MP3 download of a 12-session series of lectures by Dr. Brown. Available in a bundle that also includes the The Messiah Texts: Jewish Legends of Three Thousand Years text book and course notes. 
  2. Cohen, Gary G. Old Testament Messianic Promises and Israel. A lecture from the Tabor Lecture Series at Western Reformed Seminar.


Online Articles & Websites
  1. Cooper, Brad. "Messianic Prophecy: An Overview" 
  2. Cooper, Brad. "Did The Early Church Invent The Prophecies That Show That Jesus Is The Messiah?" 
  3. Brown, Michael. "Dr. Michael Brown Reveals the Real Messiah". Dr. Brown is one of the leading experts on Messianic prophecy and has developed an excellent website for sharing that expertise.

Books
  1. Ankerberg, John, Walter Kaiser and John Weldon. The Case for Jesus the Messiah. ATRI Publishing, 2014. 
  2. Barrett, Michael P. V. Beginning at Moses: Finding Christ in the Old Testament. Greenville, South Carolina: Ambassador International, 2016.
  3. Baylis, Albert H. From Creation to the Cross. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1996. Previously published by Multnomah Press (1986) under the title On the Way to Jesus.
  4. Beale, G.K. Handbook on the New Testament Use of the Old Testament: Exegesis and Interpretation. Grand Rapids: Baker Academic, 2012. 
  5. Brown, Michael L. Answering Jewish Objections to Jesus (Volume 1). San Francisco: Purple Pomegranate Productions, 2010.
  6. Clowney, Edmund. The Unfolding Mystery: Discovering Christ in the Old Testament. P & R Publishing, 1988, 2013.
  7. Eastman, Mark and Chuck Smith. The Search for Messiah. Costa Mesa, California: The Word For Today, 1996. Available to read FREE online. 
  8. Efird, James M., editor. The Use of the Old Testament in the New and Other Essays Studies in Honor of William Franklin Stinespring. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1972. pp.332. FREE! PDF downloads (by chapter/essay).
  9. Fruchtenbaum, A.G. Messianic Christology: A Study of Old Testament Prophecy Concerning the First Coming of the Messiah. Tustin CA: Ariel Ministries, 1998.
  10. Frydland, R. What the Rabbis Know About the Messiah: A Study of Genealogy and Prophecy. Cincinnati: Messianic Jewish Resources International, 2002.
  11. Kaiser, Jr., Walter C. Mission in the Old Testament: Israel as a Light to the Nations. Grand Rapids: Baker Academic, 2000.
  12. Lockyer, Herbert. All the Messianic Prophecies of the Bible. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1973.
  13. Murray, David. Jesus on Every Page: 10 Simple Ways to Seek and Find Christ in the Old Testament.  Nashville: Thomas Nelson, 2013.
  14. Newman, Robert C., ed. The Evidence of Prophecy. Hatfield, Pennsylvania: Interdisciplinary Biblical Research Institute, 1990. Chapters 9-11 deal with Messianic prophecy. Chapter 9 gives an overview of messianic expectation in ancient Judaism and then compares the New Testament model of messianic interpretation with other ancient Jewish interpretations. Chapter 10 looks at the timing of Messiah's coming as given in Daniel's prophecy of the seventy "sevens" (9:24-27). The "sevens" are interpreted as Sabbath-year cycles. I found this treatment to be much more satisfying than the "prophetic year" approach. And chapter 11 examines Isaiah 53. An excellent synopsis of the passage is given and then it is shown that neither Israel nor other proposals fit this prophecy but Jesus does. (Chapter 2 compares Biblical prophecy with pagan prophecy. Chapters 3-5 focus on the prophecies of the destruction of Tyre, the conquest of Palestine, and the fall of Ninevah. And chapters 6-8 deal with prophecies related to the history of Israel.)
  15. Stoner, Peter W. and Robert C. Newman. Science Speaks: Scientific Proof of the Accuracy of Prophecy and the Bible. Chicago: Moody Press, 1944, 2005. You can read it online for FREE.
  16. Strobel, Lee. The Case for the Real Jesus. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 2007. Challenge #5 (p.189ff) of Strobel's book includes an excellent interview with Dr. Michael Brown. This would be a good place for anyone to start in their investigation of Messianic prophecy, and there is plenty of insight here for even someone who is more advanced in their understanding of Messianic prophecy.
  17. Walvoord, John F. The Prophecy Knowledge Handbook. Wheaton: Victor Books, 1990. The main benefit of this book is that the Appendices list every prophecy of the Bible, including the reference of the prediction and the reference/info of its fulfillment. (These appendices are 122 pages of 3-column format. And as a bonus for our purposes, all of the messianic prophecies are noted with an asterisk.) This book was re-published by David C. Cook in 2011 under the title Every Prophecy in the Bible.
  18. Webster, William. Behold Your King: Prophetic Proofs That Jesus Is The Messiah. Battle Ground, WA: Christian Resources, 2003.
  19. Wright, Christopher. The Mission of God’s People: A Biblical Theology of the Church’s Mission. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 2010.
  20. Wright, Christopher. Knowing Jesus Through the Old Testament. Downers Grove, Illinois: IVP Academic, 1992, 2014.
  21. Vander Lugt, Herb. Questions Skeptics Ask About Messianic Prophecy (2002). A 33-page booklet produced by Radio Bible Class. FREE! in PDF file.
  22. Marshall, David. Jesus Is No Myth!: The Fingerprints of God on the Gospels The Postscript, p.286-298, offers some interesting insights as to how ancient literature from India, Iceland and China foreshadow the coming of Christ.
  23. Marshall, David. How Jesus Passes the Outsider Test. Chapters 6-10, p.99-160, explore ways in which Christ fulfills not only the Old Testament but also the ancient traditions of Greece, Iceland, Indian and China.


INTERMEDIATE
Online Courses
Goldberg, Louis. "Messianic Prophecy" (nearly 12 hours) FREE!


Videos
*"Did Moses Write about Jesus?: The Challenges of Figural Reading." Lecture by Richard Hays. "In his lecture, Richard Hays illustrates and explores the surprising ways in which the four Gospel writers interpreted Israel’s Scripture as a witness to the identity of Jesus. He first summarizes and then extends the hermeneutical proposals explored in his recent book Reading Backwards: Figural Christology and the Fourfold Gospel Witness. What might it mean for readers in late modernity to take seriously the interpretative methods employed by the Gospel authors? Are Christian claims about Jesus bound inextricably to these interpretative methods?" (description from the Lanier Theological Library)


Online Articles (& Book Chapters)
  1. Lendering, Jona. "Messiah (Overview)." An extensive collection of articles covering the concept of Messiah. Includes articles on all of the Jewish Messianic claimants from 4 BC to 1994 AD. Anthony Horvath has made a nice chart from this data on Jewish Messianic claimants that can be found in his article here.
  2. Bock, Darrell. "Evangelicals and the Use of the Old Testament in the New: Part 1."
  3. Bock, Darrell. "Evangelicals and the Use of the Old Testament in the New: Part 2."
  4. Collins, John J. and Craig Evans. Christian Beginnings and the Dead Sea Scrolls. (Grand Rapids: BakerAcademic, 2006), p. 15-62. Collins and Evans discuss Jewish messianic expectations revealed in the Dead Sea Scrolls (DSS)--and before Jesus. And R. Glenn Wooden also has a useful discussion for how the DSS can help us understand New Testament interpretation of the Old Testament (p. 101-120).
  5. Ellis, E. Earle. "Jesus' Use of the Old Testament and the Genesis of New Testament Theology."
  6. Miller, Glenn. "Did the Messianic Jewish Believers Use the OT Deceptively or Ignorantly in the New Testament?"
  7. Miller, Glenn. "Messianic Expectations in 1st Century Judaism."
  8. Marshall, I. Howard. "The Messiah in the First Century: A Review Article."
  9. Nicole, Roger. "New Testament Use of the Old Testament."
  10. Wright, Chris. "A Christian Approach to Old Testament Prophecy Concering Israel."
  11. Marshall, David. "Why the Christmas Tree Is Christian." An intriguing look at how Viking mythology foretold the coming of Christ for Nordic peoples.
  12. Brandt, Larry. "Messianic Prophecy: First Things First"
  13. Geisler, Norman L. and Frank Turek. I Don't Have Enough Faith to Be an Atheist (Wheaton, Illinois: Crossway Books, 2004), pages 327-340.
  14. Last Seminary hosts 11 scholarly articles on the use of the Old Testament in the New that can be download for FREE--with brief abstracts for each.
  15. Bauckham, Richard. Jesus and the Eyewitnesses. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2006, p.74-78. Bauckham shows how the most popular names of the second temple period (and also the complete non-use of David, Elijah and Moses) indicate a nationalistic messianic hope during that period.
  16. Theopedia: "New Testament Use of the Old Testament"

Books
(You would also benefit from a knowledge of Biblical Hebrew/Greek.)
  1. Beale, Gregory K. and Donald A. Carson, Commentary on the New Testament Use of the Old Testament. Grand Rapids: Baker, 2007.
  2. Berding, K. Three Views on the New Testament Use of the Old Testament (Counterpoints: Bible and Theology). Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 2008. FREE pdf download of the first section.
  3. Boyrian, D. The Jewish Gospels: The Story of the Jewish Christ. New York, NY: New Press, 2012. 
  4. Briggs, Charles Augustus. Messianic Prophecy: The Prediction of the Fulfillment of Redemption through the Messiah. New York: Charles Scribners Sons, 1902. FREE download.
  5. Brown, Michael L. Answering Jewish Objections to Jesus (Volumes 2-5). San Francisco: Purple Pomegranate Productions, 2010.
  6. Browne, Edward Harold. The Fulfilment of the Old Testament Prophecies Relating to the Messiah, in the Person, Character, and Actions of Jesus of Nazareth. A Dissertation which Obtained the Norrisian Medal for the Year 1835, in the University of Cambridge. Cambridge, 1836. FREE download.
  7. Collins, John J., Adela Yarbro Collins, Karin Hedner-Zetterholm and Jan-Eric Steppa. The Messiah In Early Judaism and Christianity. Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 2007. 
  8. Collins, John J. The Scepter and the Star: The Messiahs Of The Dead Sea Scrolls And Other Ancient Literature. New York: Doubleday Dell Publishing Group, 1995.
  9. Delitzsch, Franz. Messianic Prophecies in Historical Succession. Edingburgh: T. and T. Clark, 1891. Translated by Samuel Ives Curtiss. FREE download.
  10. ------------------. Messianic Prophecies: Lectures. Edinburgh: T. and T. Clark, 1880. Translated by Samuel Ives Curtiss. FREE download.
  11. Edersheim, Alfred. The Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah (2 volumes). New York: Longmans, Green, and Co.: 1900. Only part of this work is dedicated to Messianic Prophecy. Of special note is Chapter V: "What Messiah Did the Jews Expect?" (Vol. 1: p.160-179), Appendix VIII: "Rabbinic Traditions About Elijah, The Forerunner of the Messiah," and Appendix IX: "List of Old Testament Passages Messianically Applied in Ancient Rabbinic Writings." FREE download.
  12. -----------------. Prophecy and History in Relation to the Messiah. New York: Longmans, Green, and Co.: 1901. Reprinted by Baker Book House in 1980. The Warburton Lectures for 1880-1884. FREE download.
  13. France, R.T. Jesus and the Old Testament. Regent College Publishing, 1992. Not strictly about messianic prophecy but part of the book does deal with how Jesus interpreted the Old Testament prophecies about himself.
  14. Groningen, Gerard Van. Messianic Revelation in the Old Testament. Grand Rapids: Baker Book House, 1990.
  15. Hoehner, Harold W. Chronological Aspects of the Life of Christ. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1977, 2010. Chapter VI: Daniel’s Seventy Weeks and New Testament Chronology
  16. Juel, Donald. Messianic Exegesis. Philadelphia: Augsburg Fortress Publishers, 2009.
  17. Justin Martyr. Dialogue With Trypho, A Jew. (c.160 A.D.) Justin was a Christian philosopher and apologist of the mid-second century A.D. "...the Dialogue with Trypho, is the first elaborate exposition of the reasons for regarding Christ as the Messiah of the Old Testament, and the first systematic attempt to exhibit the false position of the Jews in regard to Christianity." (1:297, Coxe, Ante-Nicene Fathers, Sage Software Edition, 1996). The first 8 chapters of this work describes Justin's pursuit of philosophy and his conversion. Then he begins answering Jewish objections about Christians not keeping the Old Testament laws. In chapter 31, he begins giving detailed responses related to messianic prophecy. (Chapters 55-63 deal with Jewish objections to the Incarnation--and Justin's view seems to be quite Arian!) FREE download as  part of the Ante-Nicene Fathers....or here....or you can find a document that contains only the Dialogue here.
  18. Justin Martyr. First Apology. (c.150 A.D.) Chapters 31-42, 45, 48-53. FREE download.
  19. Kaiser, Jr., Walter C. The Messiah in the Old Testament. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1995.
  20. ----------------- . Recovering the Unity of the Bible: One Continuous Story, Plan, and Purpose. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 2009.
  21. -----------------. Uses of the Old Testament in the New. Wipf & Stock Publishers, 2001. Not strictly about messianic prophecy but about how New Testament writers interpreted the Old Testament, including messianic prophecies. A good study in hermeneutics.
  22. Leathes, Stanley. Old Testament Prophecy: Its Witness as a Record of Divine Foreknowledge. London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1880. These were the Warburton Lectures for 1876-80. FREE download.
  23. ------------------. The Witness of the Old Testament to Christ. London: Rivingtons, 1868. These were the Boyle Lectures for 1868. FREE download.
  24. Longenecker. Richard N. Biblical Exegesis in the Apostolic Period. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1999.
  25. Pascal, Blaise. Pensees. (1660). This is a classic work of apologetics. Pascal died before he could finish it; but his friends gathered his notes together and published them. In the edition found at CCEL (link below), the following sections relate to messianic prophecy: X: Typology, XI: The Prophecies, and XII: Proofs of Jesus Christ. Read for FREE online here...or FREE download of text and/or audio here.
  26. Patai, Raphael. The Messiah Text
  27. Payne, J. Barton. Encyclopedia of Biblical Prophecy. Grand Rapids:  Baker Book House, 1980. Payne identifies 71 Messianic Prophecies from the Old Testament. He covers all predictive prophecy in the Bible--all 8,352 verses! (approximately 27% of the Bible). Also, there is a complete list of messianic prophecies in "Summary C" (pages 665-670).
  28. Porter, Stanley. The Messiah in the Old and New Testaments (McMaster New Testament Studies). Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans, 2007.
  29. Pyle, Douglas. What the Rabbonim Say About Moshiach, 2010. FREE!
  30. Riehm, Eduard. Messianic Prophecy: Its Origin, Historical Growth, and Relation to New Testament Fulfillment. Edinburgh: T.&T. Clark, 1876. FREE download.
  31. Rydelnik, Michael. The Messianic Hope: Is the Hebrew Bible Really Messianic? (NAC Studies in Bible & Theology). Nashville: B&H Academic, 2010.
  32. Santala, Risto. The Messiah in the Old Testament. FREE.
  33. Santala, Risto. The Messiah in the New Testament. FREE.
  34. Santala, Risto. The Midrash and the Messiah: The Messiah and His Meal FREE.
  35. Skarsaune, O. In The Shadow Of The Temple: Jewish Influences On Early Christianity. Downers Grove, IL: Intervarsity Press, 2002.
  36. Stearns, Oakman Sprague. A Syllabus of the Messianic Passages in the Old Testament. Boston: Press of Percival T. Bartlett, 1884. FREE download.
  37. "Jesus in Typology": a brief online bibliography with links
  38. "Jesus in the Old Testament": an extensive online bibliography with links (and many FREE pdf files)

ADVANCED 
Books
(You would also benefit from a knowledge of Biblical Hebrew/Greek.)
  1. Bauckham, R. Jesus and the God of Israel: God Crucified and Other Studies on the New Testament’s Christology of Divine Identity. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans Publishing House, 2008.
  2. Beale, G.K. A New Testament Biblical Theology: The Unfolding of the Old Testament in the New. Grand Rapids: Baker Academic, 2011. Two scholars on this subject for which I have deep respect both independently pointed me to Beale's work as their number one choice. The long list of praise for this book by evangelical scholars on Amazon is quite impressive. I definitely hope to get a copy of one of Beale's books soon. This massive volume contains 1072 pages.
  3. Bird, Michael. Are You the One Who Is to Come?: The Historical Jesus and the Messianic Question. Grand Rapids: Baker Academic, 2009. 
  4. Bock, Darrell L. and Mitch Glaser. The Gospel According to Isaiah 53: Encountering the Suffering Servant in Jewish and Christian Theology. Grand Rapids: Kregel Academic & Professional, 2012. 
  5. Bock, Darrell L., Herbert W. Bateman and Gordon H. Johnston. Jesus the Messiah: Tracing The Promises, Expectations, And Coming Of Israel’s King. Grand Rapids: Kregel, 2012. Synopsis of book from Amazon: "Few books have sought to exhaustively trace the theme of Messiah through all of Scripture, but this book does so with the expert analysis of three leading evangelical scholars. For the Bible student and pastor, Jesus the Messiah presents a comprehensive picture of both scriptural and cultural expectations surrounding the Messiah, from an examination of the Old Testament promises to their unique and perfect fulfillment in Jesus life." Eric Chabot says this is the best book on messianic prophecy yet.
  6. Doukhan, J. On The Way To Emmaus: Five Major Messianic Prophecies Explained. Clarksville, MD: Lederer Books, 2012.
  7. Driver, S.R. and A. Neubauer. The Fifty-third Chapter of Isaiah According to the Jewish Interpreters. Oxford: James Parker & Co.: 1877. FREE download.
  8. Patai, Raphael. The Messiah Texts: Jewish Legends of Three Thousand YearsDetroit: Wayne State University Press, 1986. This is the text that Dr. Michael Brown uses with his audio lectures on the subject (see above in "Audio"), and it has outstanding reviews on Amazon.

STILL LOOKING?....
*Check out Christian CADRE's list of resources.




The "Great Isaiah Scroll" found among the Dead Sea Scrolls. 

Image Soure: Wikimedia Commons

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*GUIDE TO THE CONTENTS OF MY BLOG

Thursday, May 2, 2013

DID THE EARLY CHURCH INVENT THE PROPHECIES THAT SHOW THAT JESUS IS THE MESSIAH?


The "Great Isaiah Scroll" found among the Dead Sea Scrolls. 
Image Soure: Wikimedia Commons

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Did the early church change the Old Testament in order to make it look like Jesus fulfilled messianic prophecies? Or were these prophecies (as we have them now) contained in the Old Testament before the time of Christ? In this post, I will focus on the evidence that these messianic prophecies were in existence prior to the time of Christ and were not merely the invention of the early church.

1. THE SEPTUAGINT (LXX):
It is true that we only have fragments of the Septuagint (LXX) that date before the time of Christ. There are only a handful of these manuscripts and (so far as I have been able to establish) they all contain portions of the Pentateuch (except one which has the apocryphal book known as The Letter of Jeremiah). So it is fair to say that the manuscript evidence for the LXX does not favor the use of the LXX in establishing the veracity of messianic prophecies.

*A list of LXX manuscripts can be found here.

However, I am only currently aware of one passage where the LXX is an issue and that is Isaiah 7:14. (There may be others.) In Isaiah 7:14, the LXX is explicit that this passage refers to a virgin birth. The Hebrew Masoretic Text (MT), on the other hand, is not so explicit. Nonetheless, the virgin birth can be logically argued to be implied in the MT. More pertinent to the question at hand is Justin Martyr's Dialogue with Trypho (a Jew). This dialogue is dated to c.160 A.D. At least twice Justin refers to the LXX as the opinion of the 70 elders of the Jews and there is no hint that he is having to defend the Jewish origin of the LXX--even though Justin's dialogue is quite lengthy and discusses all of Trypho's many objections at length (Coxe, Ante-Nicene FathersVol.1: p.233, 234, 241; or you may find a document containing just the Dialogue here."


2. THE DEAD SEA SCROLLS FOUND AT QUMRAN (DSS):
While it is true that most of the manuscripts from the Dead Sea Scrolls (DSS) are fragmentary, there are two very important exceptions: the Great Scroll of Isaiah and the Great Psalms Scroll (Abegg, Martin G., et al, The Dead Sea Scrolls Bible, p.iv). And since Isaiah and Psalms are two of the most important sources of messianic prophecies, these are important exceptions indeed. The Great Isaiah Scroll, which is very nearly complete, dates to c. 125 B.C.

Additionally: "Around twenty additional copies of the Book of Isaiah were also found at Qumran (one more copy was discovered further south at Wadi Muraba'at), as well as six pesharim (commentaries) based on the book; Isaiah is also frequently quoted in other scrolls (a literary and religious phenomenon also present in New Testament writings)." There are also 37 manuscripts of the Psalms and 30 of Deuteronomy in the DSS collection.
*Reference: http://dss.collections.imj.org.il/isaiah

Isaiah 53 is the most important of these messianic prophecies. I will attach photos of the corresponding pages from The Dead Sea Scrolls Bible. (Note that the footnotes describe variations between this manuscript, the LXX and the MT. Very helpful in answering the questions at hand.) I recommend that you obtain a copy of this book for examining any of the messianic prophecies that skeptics raise questions about. (See link below.)


3. THE MASORETIC TEXT (MT):
The Masoretic Text is the text that has been preserved by the Jews themselves. This Jewish textual tradition began c. 100 A.D., largely in response to the Christian use of the LXX. As Blaise Pascal noted in his Pensees:

To give faith to the Messiah, it was necessary there should have been precedent prophecies, and that these should be conveyed by persons above suspicion, diligent, faithful, unusually zealous, and known to all the world. To accomplish all this, God chose this carnal people, to whom He entrusted the prophecies which foretell the Messiah as a deliverer, and as a dispenser of those carnal goods which this people loved. And thus they have had an extraordinary passion for their prophets, and, in sight of the whole world, have had charge of these books which foretell their Messiah, assuring all nations that He should come, and in the way foretold in the books, which they held open to the whole world. Yet this people, deceived by the poor and ignominious advent of the Messiah, have been His most cruel enemies. So that they, the people least open to suspicion in the world of favouring us, the most strict and most zealous that can be named for their law and their prophets, have kept the books incorrupt. Hence those who have rejected and crucified Jesus Christ, who has been to them an offence, are those who have charge of the books which testify of Him, and state that He will be an offence and rejected. Therefore they have shown it was He by rejecting Him, and He has been alike proved both by the righteous Jews who received Him, and by the unrighteous who rejected Him, both facts having been foretold. *Pascal, Blaise. Pensées  Public Domain Books. Kindle Edition, 2006. p. 161-162.


4. ANCIENT JEWISH LITERATURE THAT REFERS TO MESSIANIC PROPHECY:
In general, it is important to note that messianic expectations were widespread among the Jews--not just among the Christians. Josephus notes this. It is clearly seen in the DSS to be true of the community at Qumran. It is seen in the Enochian tradition. And it is clearly seen in the Rabbinic (Pharisaic) tradition. (For more detailed information, see Bird, Michael F. Are You the One Who Is To Come?)

In the appendix to his classic 2 volume work, The Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah, Alfred Edersheim, who was born an Orthodox Jew but became a Christian at the age of 20, identified over 400 passages from the Old Testament that were referred to as messianic within ancient rabbinic literature.







*You can buy The Dead Sea Scrolls Bible at Amazon.


*For a ton of resources, see "Resources for the Study of Messianic Prophecy."