Tuesday, September 10, 2013


"The prophecies are the strongest proof of Jesus Christ. 
It is for them also that God has made most provision...." 
~ Blaise Pascal (1660) in Pensees, XI: 706

Perhaps the predominant apologetic of the New Testament is "proving from the Scriptures that Jesus is the Messiah" (as noted of Apollos in Acts 18:28). This is seen throughout the book of Acts (Peter: 2:22-31; Stephen: 7:52; Paul: 9:22; 17:2-3; 28:23). It is also seen as a central argument in the four gospels, which quote many of these messianic prophecies. Matthew constantly refers to messianic prophecies, often using some form of the explicit formula: "this happened to fulfill what was said through the prophet" (1:22; 2:15, 17, 23; 4:14; 8:17; 12:17; 13:35; 21:4; 26:56; 27:9). Likewise, John frequently uses variations of a similar formula: "so that the Scriptures might be fulfilled" (13:18; 17:12; 19:24, 28, 36). Furthermore, what is probably the oldest creed of the Church (1 Corinthians 15:3-8, probably formed by 33 A.D.) explicitly notes that Jesus' substitutionary death, burial and resurrection were in accordance with the Scriptures (meaning the prophecies of the Old Testament). And all of this has its roots in Jesus' own teaching. For example: "And beginning with Moses and all the Prophets, Jesus explained to them what was said in all the Scriptures concerning himself" (Luke 24:27; also Matthew 26:54; John 5:39; etc.).

But applying these Old Testament prophecies to the Messiah was not a Christian invention. Messianic expectation (though not universal) was widespread among the Jews from the 1st Century B.C. until the 2nd Century A.D. This messianic expectation is seen not only in the gospel accounts (e.g., Matthew 2:1-6; Luke 2:25-32; John 1:41-45) but also in other Jewish writings. They are found in the writings that represent the Jewish traditions in the desert community of Qumran. They were a part of the popular Rabbinic/Pharisaic tradition of Judea as preserved in the Talmud and other rabbinic writings. They show up in the Alexandrian traditions far away in Egypt as seen in Philo and in interpretations in the Septuagint. And they are clearly expressed in the traditions represented by Psalms of Solomon, 1 Enoch, 4 Ezra, 2 Baruch, the Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs, and the Sibylline Oracles. [Bird, Michael F. Are You the One Who Is to Come? (Grand Rapids: Baker Academic, 2009), p.44-62; Newman, Robert C. The Evidence of Prophecy (Hatfield, Pennsylvania: Interdisciplinary Biblical Research Institute, 1988, 2012), Kindle Location 1834.]

When brought together, these Old Testament prophecies form a substantial profile of the Messiah. They tell where he would be born (Bethlehem: Micah 5:2), what ancestral line he would come from (David's: 2 Samuel 7:12-16; Isaiah 9:6-7; 11:1-4), and that he would be born of a virgin (Isaiah 7:14). They also tell when he would come: before Judah lost its "scepter" (i.e., its tribal identity and right to rule; Genesis 49:10) and before the destruction of Jerusalem and its temple (Daniel 9:26). They foretold that he would fulfill the roles of prophet, priest and king. He would be a prophet like Moses (who was a prophesying, wonder-working lawgiver who spoke to God directly; Deuteronomy 18:15-18). He would be a priest and substitutionary sacrifice who would reconcile people to God (Psalm 110:4 ; Zechariah 3:8; 6:12-13; Isaiah 53:4-12; etc.). And he would be a Davidic king who would rule the nations (Isaiah 9:6-7). And there are many more details revealed about the coming Messiah that are simply beyond the scope of this article. But most striking of all are the detailed prophecies of his death and his resurrection (Isaiah 53; Psalm 22; Genesis 22, etc.).

A common objection is that, if Jesus was the Messiah, the Jews would have recognized him and not rejected him. But even this is a fulfillment of Old Testament prophecies (Isaiah 53; Zechariah 12:10; etc.). Ultimately, the Jews rejected Jesus because he claimed to be God, because he was crucified, and because he did not restore Israel and ascend the Davidic throne to rule the world. Yet the prophecies foretold that the Messiah would be God (Isaiah 9:6; Zechariah 11:13/Matthew 27:9; Zechariah 12:10/John 19:37; Micah 5:2/Matthew 2:6; etc.) and that he would suffer crucifixion before rising from the dead (Isaiah 53; Psalm 22; etc.). Afterwards (at an undetermined time), he would restore Israel and rule the nations.

When all of the messianic prophecies are considered, there is only one person in history who even comes close to fulfilling them: Jesus. These prophecies provide the context for understanding who Jesus is and reveal that he was not invented by people but was progressively revealed by God through his prophets over thousands of years, so that we would be able to recognize him unmistakably.

This is a powerful apologetic that has unfortunately been largely neglected in recent years. And many who have made use of these prophecies have done so carelessly. In using messianic prophecy as an apologetic, it is important to discern the difference between predictive prophecy and typology. Some prophecies clearly expect a future fulfillment (e.g., Micah 5:2; Deuteronomy 18:15-18) while others are simply types that were fulfilled by Christ (e.g., the Passover and the sacrificial system). To present these prophecies with integrity and with the ability to defend them requires a depth of understanding of the Scriptures and careful study. And to this we are called.


*For a ton of resources, see "Resources for the Study of Messianic Prophecy."

The "Great Isaiah Scroll" found among the Dead Sea Scrolls. 
Image Soure: Wikimedia Commons

Saturday, July 27, 2013


"Sing to the Lord! Praise his name!
Announce every day how he delivers!
Tell the nations about his splendor!
Tell all the nations about his amazing deeds!
For the Lord is great and certainly worthy of praise...."
(Psalm 96:2-4a, New English Translation/NET Bible)

I am writing this post for the purpose of thanking the One who has rescued me from the depths, and also to thank all those who interceded for me before his mighty throne. He has heard our prayers and answered clearly and mightily. Basically, it will be an account of how God delivered me from a cancerous tumor that was growing on my left kidney and the various ways that he heard the prayers of many as my wife and I walked through this difficult path in our life.


So then, let me start this story from the beginning: Back in March I began having kidney problems (kidney infection/stone signaled by gross hematuria). This led me to a urologist who ordered a scan and the scan found a tumor on my left kidney. The urologist believed that the tumor had nothing to do with the symptoms that led to the scan and that finding the tumor was fortuitous. I believe the word "providential" is more accurate, that is: we found this tumor because God wanted us to find it.
My initial urologist referred me to his colleague who was trained to use a robot to do kidney surgery laparoscopically. When I met with him, he looked at the scan and told me that he would try to save the kidney, but that--because of where the tumor was--he would probably have to take the whole kidney.

Fastforward to Friday, July 19, the day of my surgery. The surgery came and went; and when I woke up in my hospital room several hours later, I was very happy to see my family. But I had no memory of the surgery, and from that moment on I never had anything but occasional light pain from the incisions and cutting that had been done on my body. I was told that the surgery went very well. Our prayers had been answered! But I would not find out (or at least take in) all of the details until I talked to the doctor myself.

On Saturday, I was beginning to feel strong enough to eat something more than ice chips (or "rice chips" as I kept calling them when first coming out from under anesthesia). I tried a couple of bites of yogurt and applesauce and banana. I also began a routine of walking down the hospital hall in order to get my bowels working. The first tastes of food seemed to settle fine so I was emboldened to try something more. I ordered some more yogurt and a bowl of chicken noodle soup. That's when the trouble started.

As the chicken noodle soup went down, everything seemed great. It tasted wonderful and I felt my energy returning even as I was eating it. For those few fleeting minutes, I was feeling fantastic. Then the acid reflux started to come...and come....and come....and come....

Over the next 18 hours the acid reflux intensified. The nurses and I tried everything we could think of--one "remedy" after another--to get rid of it, but nothing (not even the prescription acid blocker) gave more than a moment's relief. Other than those, brief moments, it was just hour after hour of the most intense burning in my throat--and a constant painful belching. At some point, I realized that the reason I was having all of this acid reflux was because everything I was eating was staying right in my stomach and going no farther, because my bowels were not working ("paralyzed" my doctor would tell me later). All through the night I was walking and doing all kinds of movements to try and get my bowels moving. By morning, I was completely exhausted and sleep deprived.

Throughout the night I cried out to God, wondering why he would not answer. The cries of the psalmists came to my mind, such as: "Why, O Lord, are you so far from saving me, so far from the words of my groaning!?" (Psalm 22:1) I knew he was there, but I could not understand why he was letting me suffer. To the best of my recollection, it was the most miserable day of my life.

It was about that time that my wife notified some prayer warriors about the acid reflux. Not long after that, the cure for my acid reflux came (another long story), the acid reflux vanished and it never came back!

With the acid reflux gone, I did my best to sleep (from 11:30am to about 8pm on a Sunday). I was awakened about every 30 minutes, but at least I was able to lay down and sleep. When I finally woke up, I was feeling much better, but my bowels were still not moving--at all. Again my wife notified some prayer warriors about the problem. And again the answer was soon to come.

My wife ordered a grilled cheese. But I ordered nothing. I didn't even want to think about food at that point. I was just going to wait until the next day to try eating. But when the food came, my wife tore off a small part of her sandwich and offered it to me. It did smell good. And I thought that the least I could do was take a couple of nibbles. As soon as the bread touched my tongue--even as I was biting down on it, the most amazing thing happened. My bowels instantaneously reacted to it and I felt a distinct bubbling sensation in two different places. In the hours that followed, I continually felt my bowels moving. And shortly after I went to sleep, I had to wake back up to have a bowel movement. (Sorry if mention of that seems out of place, but in reality, that was one of the most important moments of my whole hospital stay!)

The next morning I was beginning to feel great, and it was only a matter of time before I would be discharged from the hospital that day. The thought of getting home to get a good night's sleep in my own bed had never seemed so sweet.

During one of his visits, the doctor told me about how the surgery had gone. He said it was the most difficult tumor removal that he had ever done. And he said that he was "amazed" (his word) that he was able to do it. He had a limit of 30 minutes to remove the tumor before the arteries to my kidney had to be unclamped--or my kidney could die. He said he was able to remove the tumor in 29 minutes. Then he told me that just the week before they had obtained a machine by which they could see everything that was going on in real time through ultrasound. Before this, he had to figure everything out through triangulation using three different cameras. Do you think that made the difference of a minute or two--perhaps more? No doubt in my mind. Once again God provided just what was needed in answer to our prayers.

Next he told me that he had had to cut so deeply into my kidney that he was very concerned that there would be bleeding, when he unclamped my artery. But when he did, there was absolutely no leakage. My response to all of this was to say: "Well, lots of people have been praying for me." To which he said, "Well, it worked."

This man is obviously a man of great skill and competency. And I am indeed thankful to have been under the care of such an excellent surgeon and his very capable team. But in this moment, I am convinced that God enabled him to do something that was even beyond his natural abilities--that amazed even him! I was prepared to live with only one kidney. I had told my wife: "Other people donate their kidneys to save someone's life; if one of my kidneys has to be taken to save mine, I really can't complain." But God was very gracious to me and allowed me to keep my kidney.

And I should add that during my recovery, I was also blessed with a wonderful nursing staff and a loving wife who stayed there with me during the whole thing.

Finally, I got the pathology report Friday (July 26). The news: the tumor was indeed cancerous. But the report showed that the entire margin of the dissection was negative (that is, cancer free). The doctor said that he was sure that he was able to get all of the cancer and that there would be no need for further treatments. (Though we will monitor the area carefully as an extra precaution.) In the doctor's own words: "It's all very good news!" I have much to be thankful for! The Lord has delivered me from a deadly enemy!

UPDATE: On my one year check up, my doctor told me that my kidney had healed so completely that it was difficult to tell that he had performed surgery on it. Amazing, considering how extensively he had to cut into it!

God, in his great mercy, has healed me completely. The cancerous tumor has been completely removed and my left kidney is still there working for me. This is something that the doctor did not expect to happen. And to use his own words, he was "amazed" (in more ways than one) that he was able to make it happen.
During this whole time, God gave my wife and I an incredible peace about this whole thing. I knew that I was in his hands; and whatever his will was I was ready to be at peace with it. I was praying earnestly for complete healing, but I was ready to accept whatever answer he gave to me--for his will is perfect and he is full of love for all those who are in Jesus Christ. And for this, I choose to praise him!

But it was not just my body that he healed. It was my spirit, as well. The day after I was discharged from the hospital, in a private moment of personal worship, I suddenly found myself sobbing in prayer--with tears of joy. It had become clear to me that God had used this experience to answer another of my prayers. In recent months, I have been continually praying that God would draw me closer to himself and renew my love for him. As I contemplated how God had answered that prayer during the experiences of the previous days, I was overcome. And in that moment, I declared to him that if that was what it took, it was worth every bit of it.

And so, as strange as it may seem to some, the constant theme of my spirit during my hospital stay and since I have been home has been thanksgiving. And so I indeed will sing his praise and tell the world of his amazing deeds! (Psalm 96:2-4)

NOTE: One might wonder what place such a testimony has in a blog dedicated to the cumulative case for Christianity. Let me just say briefly that it is in fact at the heart of such a case. All the intellectual arguments are empty apart from a real encounter with the living God. They may satisfy the intellect, but they will not satisfy the soul. This testimony falls under the area known in apologetics as religious experience, and also closely related to the area of evidence known as miracles. (Though technically the above events that I recounted were not miracles but rather answers to prayer and signs of God's providential care for me).

UPDATE #2: My cancer came back a couple of years after I wrote this article and I am currently considered to have a rare form of kidney cancer and to have progressed to Stage IV. This does not negate my testimony above. And there have been many signs of answered prayer and God's power in my life in the past two years since I was diagnosed as Stage IV. For example, I have had two more surgeries. There were clear signs of God's care during the first dangerous surgery. And I recovered quickly and completely from both. Also, in spite of the cancer and the daily chemo treatments that I have had, I continue to feel great and have not missed any work except for a few days while recovering from my first surgery. (I missed no work after the second surgery.) And I work a very physical job as the oldest guy working online in the RV factory where I work, walking 7-11 miles every day that I work. I have much to be grateful for. And I am!


Friday, July 5, 2013


**NOTE: The list of ancient documents below was originally compiled by my friend Shawn White (see links below). I gave him a little input at the time and have adapted it and added to it since then.


The 27 books of the New Testament are among the most reliable ancient documents that we have and have been confirmed in multiple ways. They were written by eyewitnesses (apostles) or by those who were companions of eyewitnesses (apostles). So they are by far our best source for understanding who Jesus is. These 27 documents represent the testimony of no less than seven different eyewitnesses.

Nevertheless, most skeptics will not accept biblical sources when it comes to the existence of Jesus of Nazareth. They usually want extrabiblical sources (sources outside of the Bible) with the thought that there will not be any or perhaps very few sources that make mention of Jesus. In order to show that this does nothing to support their case or their claims, below is a list of non-Biblical historical sources dating between 30-180 years after Jesus lived. 

These sources vary in value as historical information for Jesus. Perhaps at a later time I will get to rating and explaining the value of each of these more thoroughly. 


Sources behind the Gospels (and thus earlier)
*M (Sayings in Matthew only but not in other Gospels)
*L (Sayings in Luke only but not in other Gospels)
*Q (Sayings in both Matthew and Luke but not in other Gospels)
*The Pre-Markan Passion Narrative: "Rudolf Pesch, a German expert on Mark, says the Passion source must go back to at least AD 37...." (which according to the latest and best chronological work is about 4 years after the crucifixion).

**NOTE: These are hypothetical documents that many scholars believe represent sources used by the writers of the Gospels. I am personally skeptical that the nature of these sources resembles that which is generally proposed. Nevertheless, there certainly were written eyewitness accounts before Luke--as he is very explicit that he is aware of "many" written accounts of Jesus before he wrote his Gospel (one of which was almost certainly the Gospel of Mark). See Luke 1:1-4.

An excellent article by James Smiley Bishop that looks at the value of the Gospel sources, the creed, and the hymn of Philippians 2.

Sources Quoted in the letters of the Apostle Paul (and thus earlier)
*The Creed in 1 Corinthians 15. Scholars are agreed that this creed was composed before 1 Corinthians and it is generally agreed that it was composed between 6 months and 3 years after Jesus' death and resurrection. For example:
Michael Goulder (Atheist NT Prof. at Birmingham) “…it goes back at least to what Paul was taught when he was converted, a couple of years after the crucifixion.” [“The Baseless Fabric of a Vision,” in Gavin D’Costa, editor, Resurrection Reconsidered (Oxford, 1996), 48.]
Gerd Lüdemann (Atheist Prof of NT at Göttingen): “…the elements in the tradition are to be dated to the first two years after the crucifixion of Jesus…not later than three years… the formation of the appearance traditions mentioned in I Cor.15.3-8 falls into the time between 30 and 33 CE.” [The Resurrection of Jesus, trans. by Bowden (Fortress, 1994), 171-72.]
*The above quotes are as cited by Nick Peters of Deeper Waters
*The Hymn in Philippians 2. Even liberal scholars typically agree that the hymn in Philippians 2 was composed by someone besides Paul (and therefore before Paul wrote Philippians).

*Many other creeds and Christological hymns are believed to be embedded in Paul's letters. All of them would therefore pre-date Paul's letters. I hope to document more of them later.
Here is a list given in The Uniqueness of Jesus Christ by Gary Habermas (p.29): "The chief examples [of passages explicitly stated as coming from an earlier source] include 1 Cor. 11:23-26; 15:3; 1 Thes. 2:15; 1 Tim. 1:15; 3:1; 4:9; 2 Tim. 2:11; Titus 3:8; Heb. 1:2-3." "Major examples [of passages thought to come from earlier sources but not stated explicitly] include those in Rom. 1:3-4; 4:25; 5:8; 10:9; 1 Cor. 8:6; Phil. 2:6-11, and Heb. 1:3. Cf. many others such as Eph. 1:20; Col. 1:15-20; 3:1; 1 Tim. 2:5-6; 3:16; Heb. 1:1; 1:13; 8:1; 12:2; 1 Pet. 1:21; 2:21; 3:18; 3:22."

An excellent article by James Smiley Bishop that looks at the value of the Gospel sources, the creed, and the hymn of Philippians 2.

Sources for Sermons Used by Luke in the book of Acts
Here is a list given in The Uniqueness of Jesus Christ by Gary Habermas (p.29):
"The most-commonly mentioned candidates for these sermon segments are in Acts 1:21-22; 2:22-36; 3:13-16; 4:8-10; 5:29-32; 10:39-43; 13:28-31; 17:1-3; 17:30-31. Those speaking of Jesus’ deity include Acts 2:33, 36; 5:31."

Anonymous Works of the First Century
*Didache (c. 50-120 A.D., but generally thought to belong to the First Century)
*The Epistle of Barnabas (c. 70-100 A.D.)

Ancient Historians of the First Century
*Flavius Josephus (c. 93 A.D.) See this excellent article by Dr. Paul Maier Another excellent article by Dr. Greg HerrickArticle by Shawn White. Also Josephus, the Bible and History by Louis Feldman.
*Thallus (c. 52 A.D.) See these excellent articles by Glenn Miller Jason Engwer and

 Shawn Whitealso seeThe Works of Nathaniel Lardner, Volume 4, Chapter 13.


The Apostolic Fathers (Disciples of the Apostles)
*Clement of Rome (mid to late 1st Century: knew the apostles Peter and Paul)
*Papias (c. 60-130 A.D. He was a friend of Polycarp (below). He not only knew at least two firsthand eyewitnesses to Jesus (the apostle John and another disciple named Aristion), he also interviewed many others who knew other apostles and disciples of Jesus. From these, he gathered enough eyewitness testimony to fill five volumes! This 5-volume work was entitled The Exposition of the Sayings of the Lord (Fragment 3, Eusebius' Church History 3.39.1).Furthermore, he provides historical confirmation of Jesus' miracles: "As for those who were raised from the dead by Christ, he states that they survived until the time of Hadrian" (Fragment 5, Philip of Side's 5th Century Church History). See my blog article on Papias.)
*Polycarp (c. 69-156 A.D.: disciple of the apostle John and a friend of Ignatius and Papias)
*Ignatius (d. 107 A.D.: a friend of Polycarp and probably a disciple of the apostle John and possibly another apostle)
*"The Traditions of the Elders" is a collection of 17 fragments preserving the testimony of anonymous apostolic fathers. This collection follows the "Fragments of Papias" in Lightfoot's Apostolic Fathers and a smaller collection of 5 fragments is available in the edition of The Apostolic Fathers: Greek Texts and English Translations edited and revised by Michael W. Holmes.

An Early 2nd Century Apologist
*Quadratus (c.125 AD): Knew people whom Jesus had healed


Ancient Historians of the Early Second Century
*Cornelius Tacitus (c. 115 A.D.) Article by Colin Green, Article by Ryan LeasureArticle by Shawn White
*Suetonius (c. 115 A.D.) Article by Shawn White
*Phlegon of Tralles (80-140 A.D.). Article at Never Thirstyalso see: Origen in Against Celsus, Book 2, Chapter 14 and Chapter 59; also seeThe Works of Nathaniel Lardner, Volume 4, Chapter 13.

**Summary of Tacitus, Suetonius, Josephus, and Thallus by Shawn White.

Fathers of the Early 2nd Century
*Aristides (early 2nd Century)
*Hermas (1st or 2nd Century: Origen believed him to be the Hermas of Romans 16:14)

*Justin Martyr (c. 100-165 A.D.): Knew of official government documents that spoke of Jesus
*Tertullian (late 2nd Century): Knew official church documents that told which elders were placed by apostles

*Irenaeus (d. 200 A.D.): Born in Smyrna and was a disciple of Polycarp who was a disciple of the Apostle John.
*Tatian (mid to late 2nd Century)

*Hegesippus (c. 110-180 A.D.)
*Melito (d. c. 190 A.D.)
*Apollonarius (2nd Century)
*Dionysius of Corinth (2nd Century)
*Theophilus (2nd Century)
*Athenagoras (late 2nd Century)
*Clement of Alexandria (late 2nd Century)

*The Criterion of Enemy Attestation (also known as the Criterion of a "Hostile Witness"): 
Gary Habermas notes: "The criterion of enemy attestation is satisfied when an antagonistic source expresses agreement regarding a person or event when it is contrary to their best interests to do so. Maier holds that “such positive evidence within a hostile source is the strongest kind of evidence . . . if Cicero, who despised Catiline, admitted that the fellow had one good quality--courage--among a host of bad ones then the historian correctly concludes that Catiline was at least courageous.” ("Recent Perspectives on the Reliability of the Gospels" by Gary Habermas)

Government Officials Who Prosecuted Christians
*Pontius Pilate (1 B.C. - c.37 A.D. ) Article at Never Thirsty
*Pliny the Younger (c. 111-112 A.D.) Article by Shawn White
*Emperor Trajan (early 2nd century) Article by Shawn White
*Emperor Hadrian (early 2nd century) Article by Shawn White
**Summary of Pliny, Trajan and Hadrian by Shawn White.


Critics of Christianity
*Celsus (Critic of Christianity in his work True Discourse written c. 178 A.D.)
*Marcion (d. c. 160 A.D.)

Gnostic Writings
*The Gospel of Truth (c. 140-180 A.D.)
*The Apocryphon of John (c. 120-180 A.D.)
*The Gospel of Thomas (mid 2nd Century)
*The Treatise on the Resurrection (c. 170-200 A.D.)
**NOTE; The very existence of hagiography, Gnostic writings and other heresies in the late 1st to mid 2nd Century is strong evidence for Jesus' historicity. No one invents such stories and ideas about people who do not exist. Furthermore, the heretical writings generally say very little about Jesus and his apostles but merely present them as talking heads that speak in favor of heretical ideas. In other words, these writings presuppose the well known existence of Jesus, the basic events of his life, his apostles and other persons from the four New Testament Gospels.

Other Jewish Sources
*The Talmud (c. 135 A.D.) Article by Shawn White
*Toledoth Jesu (Compiled in the 5th Century A.D., these were a collection of writings dating from mid 1st century to mid 2nd century A.D.) Article by Shawn White
**Summary of Ancient Jewish Sources by Shawn White.

Other Gentiles
*Lucian of Samosata, a Greek satirical playwright (c. 165-175 A.D.) Article by Shawn White
*Mara Bar-Serapion (c. 73-200 A.D.) Article by Shawn White
*Greek Magical Paypyri. Article at Never Thirsty
**Summary of Lucian and Mara bar-Serapion by Shawn White.


*"Is There Evidence for Jesus Outside the Bible?" by Peter Williams (6 minutes)

Articles (& Book Chapters) Online
*"Did Jesus Exist? Searching for Evidence Beyond the Bible" by Lawrence Mykytiuk. This is the January/February 2015 feature article for BAR (Biblical Archaeology Review). Excellent!
*"Early Historical Documents on Jesus Christ." A nice article at New Advent.
*"Ancient Non-Christian Sources" This is the ninth chapter from The Historical Jesus: Ancient Evidence for the Life of Christ  by Gary Habermas and is available for FREE.

*Series of articles by my friend Shawn White.  (Links to individual articles are included in the list above.)
*"Historical Jesus - Two Centuries Worth of Citations" at True Free Thinker. Lists more than 200 ancient documents within the first 2 centuries or so that mention Christ.
**McDowell, Josh and Sean McDowell. Evidence That Demands A Verdict (2017 edition). Chapter 6: "The Historical Existence of Jesus," section II. "Non-Christian Sources" (rated according to value) and III. "Christian Sources" (of exceptional value)

*Jesus Outside the New Testament by Robert  Van Voorst
*The Historical Jesus: Ancient Evidence for the Life of Christ by Gary Habermas
*Second-Century Christianity: A Collection of Fragments (Revised and Expanded) by Robert M. Grant. Brief intros and excerpts from 39 different documents from the 2nd Century.
*Testimonies of Heathen and Christian Writers of the First Two Centuries to the Truth and Power of the Gospel (1837) by Thomas Browne. FREE!


...OR "Historical Quotations About Jesus" at Never Thirsty

Saturday, May 18, 2013

MESSIANIC PROPHECY: Resources for study

"The prophecies are the strongest proof of Jesus Christ. 

It is for them also that God has made most provision...." 
~ Blaise Pascal (1660) in Pensees, XI: 706

"Apollos....vigorously refuted his Jewish opponents in public debate, 
proving from the Scriptures that Jesus was the Messiah."

(Acts 18:28, NIV)

*Acknowledgements: A huge thanks to Eric Chabot, who contributed most of the recommendations and helped me organize it. Also, thanks to Dr. Tim McGrew for recommending the works by Stanley Leathes.


  1. "16 Prophecies That Prove Jesus Is The Messiah" (8-Part series on the John Ankerberg Show featuring Dr. Walter Kaiser and Dr. Darrel Bock): "Is Jesus the Messiah?" *Part 1 *Part 2 *Part 3 *Part 4 *Part 5 *Part 6 *Part 7 *Part 8 This is a great series for someone who really wants to get an in-depth understanding of the most important prophecies. I highly recommend it. It is hard to imagine a better team of scholars for this subject. FREE!
  2. "My Search For Messiah" (2-Part Series produced by Day of Discovery). Dr. Michael Rydelnik shares his story of how he grew up as a Jew and came to know that Jesus is the Messiah prophesied in the Torah, by looking closely at several key messianic prophecies. *Part I (26 min);  *Part II (26 min) FREE!
  3. "In Search of Messiah" (22 min). Dr. Michael Brown discusses individuals whom the Jews have claimed to be the Messiah and compare them with Jesus. FREE!
  4. "Isaiah 53: Who Is the Servant?" (5 min). A roundtable discussoin with Dr. Michael Rydelnik, Dr. Michael Brown, Dr. Walter Kaiser, and Dr. Darrell Bock. FREE!
  5. "Jesus: Messiah or Not?" A debate between Dr. Michael Brown and Rabbi Gold. Also available with resources for using with a group.

  1. Brown, Michael. Messiah in Jewish Tradition. An MP3 download of a 12-session series of lectures by Dr. Brown. Available in a bundle that also includes the The Messiah Texts: Jewish Legends of Three Thousand Years text book and course notes. 
  2. Cohen, Gary G. Old Testament Messianic Promises and Israel. A lecture from the Tabor Lecture Series at Western Reformed Seminar.

Online Articles & Websites
  1. Cooper, Brad. "Messianic Prophecy: An Overview" 
  2. Cooper, Brad. "Did The Early Church Invent The Prophecies That Show That Jesus Is The Messiah?" 
  3. Cooper, Brad. "THE VIRGIN BIRTH: The Messianic Prophecy of Isaiah 7:14 Defended"
  4. Brown, Michael. "Dr. Michael Brown Reveals the Real Messiah". Dr. Brown is one of the leading experts on Messianic prophecy and has developed an excellent website for sharing that expertise.
  5. Manning, Erik. "Why Only Jesus Can Be the Suffering Servant Described in Isaiah 53"

  1. Ankerberg, John, Walter Kaiser and John Weldon. The Case for Jesus the Messiah. ATRI Publishing, 2014. 
  2. Barrett, Michael P. V. Beginning at Moses: Finding Christ in the Old Testament. Greenville, South Carolina: Ambassador International, 2016.
  3. Baylis, Albert H. From Creation to the Cross. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1996. Previously published by Multnomah Press (1986) under the title On the Way to Jesus.
  4. Beale, G.K. Handbook on the New Testament Use of the Old Testament: Exegesis and Interpretation. Grand Rapids: Baker Academic, 2012. 
  5. Brown, Michael L. Answering Jewish Objections to Jesus (Volume 1). San Francisco: Purple Pomegranate Productions, 2010.
  6. Clowney, Edmund. The Unfolding Mystery: Discovering Christ in the Old Testament. P & R Publishing, 1988, 2013.
  7. Eastman, Mark and Chuck Smith. The Search for Messiah. Costa Mesa, California: The Word For Today, 1996. Available to read FREE online. 
  8. Efird, James M., editor. The Use of the Old Testament in the New and Other Essays Studies in Honor of William Franklin Stinespring. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1972. pp.332. FREE! PDF downloads (by chapter/essay).
  9. Fruchtenbaum, A.G. Messianic Christology: A Study of Old Testament Prophecy Concerning the First Coming of the Messiah. Tustin CA: Ariel Ministries, 1998.
  10. Frydland, R. What the Rabbis Know About the Messiah: A Study of Genealogy and Prophecy. Cincinnati: Messianic Jewish Resources International, 2002.
  11. Kaiser, Jr., Walter C. Mission in the Old Testament: Israel as a Light to the Nations. Grand Rapids: Baker Academic, 2000.
  12. Lockyer, Herbert. All the Messianic Prophecies of the Bible. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1973.
  13. Murray, David. Jesus on Every Page: 10 Simple Ways to Seek and Find Christ in the Old Testament.  Nashville: Thomas Nelson, 2013.
  14. Newman, Robert C., ed. The Evidence of Prophecy. Hatfield, Pennsylvania: Interdisciplinary Biblical Research Institute, 1990. Chapters 9-11 deal with Messianic prophecy. Chapter 9 gives an overview of messianic expectation in ancient Judaism and then compares the New Testament model of messianic interpretation with other ancient Jewish interpretations. Chapter 10 looks at the timing of Messiah's coming as given in Daniel's prophecy of the seventy "sevens" (9:24-27). The "sevens" are interpreted as Sabbath-year cycles. I found this treatment to be much more satisfying than the "prophetic year" approach. And chapter 11 examines Isaiah 53. An excellent synopsis of the passage is given and then it is shown that neither Israel nor other proposals fit this prophecy but Jesus does. (Chapter 2 compares Biblical prophecy with pagan prophecy. Chapters 3-5 focus on the prophecies of the destruction of Tyre, the conquest of Palestine, and the fall of Ninevah. And chapters 6-8 deal with prophecies related to the history of Israel.)
  15. Stoner, Peter W. and Robert C. Newman. Science Speaks: Scientific Proof of the Accuracy of Prophecy and the Bible. Chicago: Moody Press, 1944, 2005. You can read it online for FREE.
  16. Strobel, Lee. The Case for the Real Jesus. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 2007. Challenge #5 (p.189ff) of Strobel's book includes an excellent interview with Dr. Michael Brown. This would be a good place for anyone to start in their investigation of Messianic prophecy, and there is plenty of insight here for even someone who is more advanced in their understanding of Messianic prophecy.
  17. Walvoord, John F. The Prophecy Knowledge Handbook. Wheaton: Victor Books, 1990. The main benefit of this book is that the Appendices list every prophecy of the Bible, including the reference of the prediction and the reference/info of its fulfillment. (These appendices are 122 pages of 3-column format. And as a bonus for our purposes, all of the messianic prophecies are noted with an asterisk.) This book was re-published by David C. Cook in 2011 under the title Every Prophecy in the Bible.
  18. Webster, William. Behold Your King: Prophetic Proofs That Jesus Is The Messiah. Battle Ground, WA: Christian Resources, 2003.
  19. Wright, Christopher. The Mission of God’s People: A Biblical Theology of the Church’s Mission. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 2010.
  20. Wright, Christopher. Knowing Jesus Through the Old Testament. Downers Grove, Illinois: IVP Academic, 1992, 2014.
  21. Vander Lugt, Herb. Questions Skeptics Ask About Messianic Prophecy (2002). A 33-page booklet produced by Radio Bible Class. FREE! in PDF file.
  22. Marshall, David. Jesus Is No Myth!: The Fingerprints of God on the Gospels The Postscript, p.286-298, offers some interesting insights as to how ancient literature from India, Iceland and China foreshadow the coming of Christ.
  23. Marshall, David. How Jesus Passes the Outsider Test. Chapters 6-10, p.99-160, explore ways in which Christ fulfills not only the Old Testament but also the ancient traditions of Greece, Iceland, Indian and China.

Online Courses
Goldberg, Louis. "Messianic Prophecy" (nearly 12 hours) FREE!

*"Did Moses Write about Jesus?: The Challenges of Figural Reading." Lecture by Richard Hays. "In his lecture, Richard Hays illustrates and explores the surprising ways in which the four Gospel writers interpreted Israel’s Scripture as a witness to the identity of Jesus. He first summarizes and then extends the hermeneutical proposals explored in his recent book Reading Backwards: Figural Christology and the Fourfold Gospel Witness. What might it mean for readers in late modernity to take seriously the interpretative methods employed by the Gospel authors? Are Christian claims about Jesus bound inextricably to these interpretative methods?" (description from the Lanier Theological Library)
*"A Study in Messianic Prophecy: A Conversation with Anthony Rogers" (2 hours 48 minutes)

Online Articles (& Book Chapters)
  1. Lendering, Jona. "Messiah (Overview)." An extensive collection of articles covering the concept of Messiah. Includes articles on all of the Jewish Messianic claimants from 4 BC to 1994 AD. Anthony Horvath has made a nice chart from this data on Jewish Messianic claimants that can be found in his article here.
  2. Bock, Darrell. "Evangelicals and the Use of the Old Testament in the New: Part 1."
  3. Bock, Darrell. "Evangelicals and the Use of the Old Testament in the New: Part 2."
  4. Collins, John J. and Craig Evans. Christian Beginnings and the Dead Sea Scrolls. (Grand Rapids: BakerAcademic, 2006), p. 15-62. Collins and Evans discuss Jewish messianic expectations revealed in the Dead Sea Scrolls (DSS)--and before Jesus. And R. Glenn Wooden also has a useful discussion for how the DSS can help us understand New Testament interpretation of the Old Testament (p. 101-120).
  5. Ellis, E. Earle. "Jesus' Use of the Old Testament and the Genesis of New Testament Theology."
  6. Miller, Glenn. "Did the Messianic Jewish Believers Use the OT Deceptively or Ignorantly in the New Testament?"
  7. Miller, Glenn. "Messianic Expectations in 1st Century Judaism."
  8. Marshall, I. Howard. "The Messiah in the First Century: A Review Article."
  9. Nicole, Roger. "New Testament Use of the Old Testament."
  10. Wright, Chris. "A Christian Approach to Old Testament Prophecy Concering Israel."
  11. Marshall, David. "Why the Christmas Tree Is Christian." An intriguing look at how Viking mythology foretold the coming of Christ for Nordic peoples.
  12. Brandt, Larry. "Messianic Prophecy: First Things First"
  13. *McDowell, Josh and Sean McDowell. Evidence That Demands A Verdict (2017 edition). Chapter 9: "Old Testament Prophecies Fulfilled in Jesus Christ"
  14. Geisler, Norman L. and Frank Turek. I Don't Have Enough Faith to Be an Atheist (Wheaton, Illinois: Crossway Books, 2004), pages 327-340.
  15. Last Seminary hosts 11 scholarly articles on the use of the Old Testament in the New that can be download for FREE--with brief abstracts for each.
  16. Bauckham, Richard. Jesus and the Eyewitnesses. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2006, p.74-78. Bauckham shows how the most popular names of the second temple period (and also the complete non-use of David, Elijah and Moses) indicate a nationalistic messianic hope during that period.
  17. Theopedia: "New Testament Use of the Old Testament"

(You would also benefit from a knowledge of Biblical Hebrew/Greek.)
  1. Beale, Gregory K. and Donald A. Carson, Commentary on the New Testament Use of the Old Testament. Grand Rapids: Baker, 2007.
  2. Berding, K. Three Views on the New Testament Use of the Old Testament (Counterpoints: Bible and Theology). Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 2008. FREE pdf download of the first section.
  3. Boyrian, D. The Jewish Gospels: The Story of the Jewish Christ. New York, NY: New Press, 2012. 
  4. Briggs, Charles Augustus. Messianic Prophecy: The Prediction of the Fulfillment of Redemption through the Messiah. New York: Charles Scribners Sons, 1902. FREE download.
  5. Brown, Michael L. Answering Jewish Objections to Jesus (Volumes 2-5). San Francisco: Purple Pomegranate Productions, 2010.
  6. Browne, Edward Harold. The Fulfilment of the Old Testament Prophecies Relating to the Messiah, in the Person, Character, and Actions of Jesus of Nazareth. A Dissertation which Obtained the Norrisian Medal for the Year 1835, in the University of Cambridge. Cambridge, 1836. FREE download.
  7. Collins, John J., Adela Yarbro Collins, Karin Hedner-Zetterholm and Jan-Eric Steppa. The Messiah In Early Judaism and Christianity. Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 2007. 
  8. Collins, John J. The Scepter and the Star: The Messiahs Of The Dead Sea Scrolls And Other Ancient Literature. New York: Doubleday Dell Publishing Group, 1995.
  9. Delitzsch, Franz. Messianic Prophecies in Historical Succession. Edingburgh: T. and T. Clark, 1891. Translated by Samuel Ives Curtiss. FREE download.
  10. ------------------. Messianic Prophecies: Lectures. Edinburgh: T. and T. Clark, 1880. Translated by Samuel Ives Curtiss. FREE download.
  11. Edersheim, Alfred. The Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah (2 volumes). New York: Longmans, Green, and Co.: 1900. Only part of this work is dedicated to Messianic Prophecy. Of special note is Chapter V: "What Messiah Did the Jews Expect?" (Vol. 1: p.160-179), Appendix VIII: "Rabbinic Traditions About Elijah, The Forerunner of the Messiah," and Appendix IX: "List of Old Testament Passages Messianically Applied in Ancient Rabbinic Writings." FREE download.
  12. -----------------. Prophecy and History in Relation to the Messiah. New York: Longmans, Green, and Co.: 1901. Reprinted by Baker Book House in 1980. The Warburton Lectures for 1880-1884. FREE download.
  13. France, R.T. Jesus and the Old Testament. Regent College Publishing, 1992. Not strictly about messianic prophecy but part of the book does deal with how Jesus interpreted the Old Testament prophecies about himself.
  14. Groningen, Gerard Van. Messianic Revelation in the Old Testament. Grand Rapids: Baker Book House, 1990.
  15. Hoehner, Harold W. Chronological Aspects of the Life of Christ. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1977, 2010Chapter VI: Daniel’s Seventy Weeks and New Testament Chronology
  16. Juel, Donald. Messianic Exegesis. Philadelphia: Augsburg Fortress Publishers, 2009.
  17. Justin Martyr. Dialogue With Trypho, A Jew. (c.160 A.D.) Justin was a Christian philosopher and apologist of the mid-second century A.D. "...the Dialogue with Trypho, is the first elaborate exposition of the reasons for regarding Christ as the Messiah of the Old Testament, and the first systematic attempt to exhibit the false position of the Jews in regard to Christianity." (1:297, Coxe, Ante-Nicene Fathers, Sage Software Edition, 1996). The first 8 chapters of this work describes Justin's pursuit of philosophy and his conversion. Then he begins answering Jewish objections about Christians not keeping the Old Testament laws. In chapter 31, he begins giving detailed responses related to messianic prophecy. (Chapters 55-63 deal with Jewish objections to the Incarnation--and Justin's view seems to be quite Arian!) FREE download as  part of the Ante-Nicene Fathers....or here....or you can find a document that contains only the Dialogue here.
  18. Justin Martyr. First Apology. (c.150 A.D.) Chapters 31-42, 45, 48-53. FREE download.
  19. Kaiser, Jr., Walter C. The Messiah in the Old Testament. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1995.
  20. ----------------- . Recovering the Unity of the Bible: One Continuous Story, Plan, and Purpose. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 2009.
  21. -----------------. Uses of the Old Testament in the New. Wipf & Stock Publishers, 2001. Not strictly about messianic prophecy but about how New Testament writers interpreted the Old Testament, including messianic prophecies. A good study in hermeneutics.
  22. Leathes, Stanley. Old Testament Prophecy: Its Witness as a Record of Divine Foreknowledge. London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1880. These were the Warburton Lectures for 1876-80. FREE download.
  23. ------------------. The Witness of the Old Testament to Christ. London: Rivingtons, 1868. These were the Boyle Lectures for 1868. FREE download.
  24. Longenecker. Richard N. Biblical Exegesis in the Apostolic Period. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1999.
  25. Pascal, Blaise. Pensees. (1660). This is a classic work of apologetics. Pascal died before he could finish it; but his friends gathered his notes together and published them. In the edition found at CCEL (link below), the following sections relate to messianic prophecy: X: Typology, XI: The Prophecies, and XII: Proofs of Jesus Christ. Read for FREE online here...or FREE download of text and/or audio here.
  26. Patai, Raphael. The Messiah Text
  27. Payne, J. Barton. Encyclopedia of Biblical Prophecy. Grand Rapids:  Baker Book House, 1980. Payne identifies 71 Messianic Prophecies from the Old Testament. He covers all predictive prophecy in the Bible--all 8,352 verses! (approximately 27% of the Bible). Also, there is a complete list of messianic prophecies in "Summary C" (pages 665-670).
  28. Porter, Stanley. The Messiah in the Old and New Testaments (McMaster New Testament Studies). Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans, 2007.
  29. Pyle, Douglas. What the Rabbonim Say About Moshiach, 2010. FREE!
  30. Riehm, Eduard. Messianic Prophecy: Its Origin, Historical Growth, and Relation to New Testament Fulfillment. Edinburgh: T.&T. Clark, 1876. FREE download.
  31. Rydelnik, Michael. The Messianic Hope: Is the Hebrew Bible Really Messianic? (NAC Studies in Bible & Theology). Nashville: B&H Academic, 2010.
  32. Santala, Risto. The Messiah in the Old Testament. FREE.
  33. Santala, Risto. The Messiah in the New Testament. FREE.
  34. Santala, Risto. The Midrash and the Messiah: The Messiah and His Meal FREE.
  35. Skarsaune, O. In The Shadow Of The Temple: Jewish Influences On Early Christianity. Downers Grove, IL: Intervarsity Press, 2002.
  36. Stearns, Oakman Sprague. A Syllabus of the Messianic Passages in the Old Testament. Boston: Press of Percival T. Bartlett, 1884. FREE download.
  37. "Jesus in Typology": a brief online bibliography with links
  38. "Jesus in the Old Testament": an extensive online bibliography with links (and many FREE pdf files)

(You would also benefit from a knowledge of Biblical Hebrew/Greek.)
  1. Bauckham, R. Jesus and the God of Israel: God Crucified and Other Studies on the New Testament’s Christology of Divine Identity. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans Publishing House, 2008.
  2. Beale, G.K. A New Testament Biblical Theology: The Unfolding of the Old Testament in the New. Grand Rapids: Baker Academic, 2011. Two scholars on this subject for which I have deep respect both independently pointed me to Beale's work as their number one choice. The long list of praise for this book by evangelical scholars on Amazon is quite impressive. I definitely hope to get a copy of one of Beale's books soon. This massive volume contains 1072 pages.
  3. Bird, Michael. Are You the One Who Is to Come?: The Historical Jesus and the Messianic Question. Grand Rapids: Baker Academic, 2009. 
  4. Bock, Darrell L. and Mitch Glaser. The Gospel According to Isaiah 53: Encountering the Suffering Servant in Jewish and Christian Theology. Grand Rapids: Kregel Academic & Professional, 2012. 
  5. Bock, Darrell L., Herbert W. Bateman and Gordon H. Johnston. Jesus the Messiah: Tracing The Promises, Expectations, And Coming Of Israel’s King. Grand Rapids: Kregel, 2012. Synopsis of book from Amazon: "Few books have sought to exhaustively trace the theme of Messiah through all of Scripture, but this book does so with the expert analysis of three leading evangelical scholars. For the Bible student and pastor, Jesus the Messiah presents a comprehensive picture of both scriptural and cultural expectations surrounding the Messiah, from an examination of the Old Testament promises to their unique and perfect fulfillment in Jesus life." Eric Chabot says this is the best book on messianic prophecy yet.
  6. Doukhan, J. On The Way To Emmaus: Five Major Messianic Prophecies Explained. Clarksville, MD: Lederer Books, 2012.
  7. Driver, S.R. and A. Neubauer. The Fifty-third Chapter of Isaiah According to the Jewish Interpreters. Oxford: James Parker & Co.: 1877. FREE download.
  8. Patai, Raphael. The Messiah Texts: Jewish Legends of Three Thousand YearsDetroit: Wayne State University Press, 1986. This is the text that Dr. Michael Brown uses with his audio lectures on the subject (see above in "Audio"), and it has outstanding reviews on Amazon.

*Check out Christian CADRE's list of resources.

The "Great Isaiah Scroll" found among the Dead Sea Scrolls. 

Image Soure: Wikimedia Commons